Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)

Causative Agents

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a member of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae and belongs to CCHF serogroup. The virus is spherical enveloped particles of 100 nm in diameter and has three segments of RNA. Due to its high pathogenicity for human and lack of therapeutics, CCHFV is handled in BSL4 (biosafety level 4) [1].


CCHFV has %10-60 mortality rate and it is endemic in many countries such as Africa, Europe and Asia. In 2001 sporadic cases or outbreaks were recorded in Kosovo, Albenia, İran, Pakistan and South Africa [2]. In Turkey between 2002-2008, several endemic outbreaks of CCHF have been reported with %5 mortality rate [3].

Modes of Transmission

The transmission of virus is mediated by Hyalomma ticks, skin contact or ingestion of contaminated blood, serum or secreted body fluids of infected animals or humans and nosocomical infections. Hospital workers, patient relatives, animal related production workers, and most importantly the people who have been bitten by ticks have high risk of infection, especially when they try to remove the ticks from their body. Animals can also be carriers of the virus by eating other infected animals or by being host to ticks [5]. Removal of ticks without proper medical expertise results in infection. [3] Also during the later stages of the infection, spread of virus between people has been reported [4].


  1. Flusin O. ve Ark. 2011, Virology Journal 2011, 8: 249.
  2. Izadi S. ve Ark. 2008 Jpn. J. Infect. Dıs. 61, 494-496.
  3. Tekin S. ve Ark. African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 4 (3), pp. 214-217, 4 February, 2010.
  4. Sheikh A.Z. ve Ark. 2005 International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2005) 9, 37—42.

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