Meningitis is caused by inflammation of the protective membranes covering brain and spinal cord (meninges). High risk of mortality and morbidity ratios might occur depending on the cause of the infection such as bacterial, viral agents or use of certain drugs. Viral meningitis is a mild form of disease with higher incidence compared to acute bacterial meningitis. Acute bacterial meningitis is rarely seen, but it may cause hearing loss, brain damage and even death if the symptoms emerging instantly cannot be detected in the early stage.
Bosphore® Neonatal Meningitis Panel Kits detect and characterize Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B), Listeria monocytogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae in human biological samples. Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive, anaerobic, facultative, ubiquitous intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of Listeriosis on humans and animals. Listeriosis – with a mortality rate of 24% – can lead to several consequences, including central nervous system infections, neonatal death, meningitis, septisemia, encephalitis and miscarriage. [1,2] Pregnant women, newborn, elderly and immunosuppressed persons are amongst the risk group to get Listeria infections .
There are 270 confirmed Listeriosis cases resulted in death between 2009-2015 within the European Union.  A multinational foodborne outbreak occurred on 6 March 2018. This outbreak -confirmed by 5 countries – caused 32 infections, 6 resulting in death .
Listeria monocytogenes is typically transmitted through contaminated food, processed meat, seafood, and poultry animals. Controlling Listeria expansion is still challenging due to the organism’s ubiquitous nature, intrinsic resistance and ability to grow under extreme environmental conditions.
Streptococcus agalactiae, commonly known as Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a diplococcal, gram positive pathogen responsible for infections affecting mainly neonates and immunocompromised patients. Organism may be found within the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy human beings as well. There are ten serotypes of Streptococcus agalacticae but most of the invasive GBS diseases are caused by serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III and V. [7,8]. Pneumonia, meningitis and septicemia are considered to be the most prominent ones among GBS related infections .
According to recent studies, one in every 5 pregnant women carry Group B Streptococcus. More than 300.000 cases of invasive GBS disease occur worldwide and 90.000 of them results in stillbirth or infant death. Africa accounts for %54 of these cases. Countries with the highest numbers of invasive GBS cases are India, China, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo and Egypt.  Streptococcus agalactiae harmlessly colonizes the microbiota of healthy adults in many cases without symptoms. Intrapartum transmission is common but mode of transmission in non-pregnant adults is still unknown.