Sepsis is a syndrome commonly caused by the inflammatory response of the immune system as a result of bacterial, viral, protozoan or fungal infections, which may result in organ failure and death if progressed. Primary infection causing sepsis can be seen in lungs, brain, urinary tract, skin or abdominal region. Sepsis can lead to severe sepsis, septic shock stages and death due to dysfunction of one or more organs if early diagnosis and treatment is not provided. It is known as the main cause of maternal and neonatal diseases and deaths, especially in low- and middle-income countries.
The organisms that cause sepsis can be exampled as E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Aspergillus spp., coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS), Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. Risk factors for the development of sepsis include early and advanced age and weakened immune system due to cancer, diabetes, major trauma or burns.