Human enteroviruses cause infections that affect millions of people worldwide each year. These viruses are affected by seasons and climates. Although most infections occur quietly or insignificantly, epidemics occur in tropical countries during the warm and rainy seasons. Enteroviruses are mostly transmitted by the fecal-oral route. However, there are some exceptions, which are mainly spread by respiratory secretions and found in tears, spreading through the fingers and fomites.
Parechoviruses mainly cause mild respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in neonates and young infants. However, infections less frequently can lead to serious diseases such as pneumonia, encephalitis, stroke and myocarditis, especially in young children.
Infections caused by Herpesviridae have different clinical symptoms. Most human herpes viruses are transmitted through physical contact or through the air.
Parvovirus B19, a member of the Parvoviridae family, is a small DNA virus that causes infections in humans. It causes erythema infectiosum, arthritis and joint pain.